In Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1886), Robert Louis Stevenson uses Mr. Hyde to show that Victorian people and society are imperfect and have dualities that Victorian values deny, ultimately leading to the destruction of the repressed person or society. The more Dr. Jekyll’s forbidden appetites are repressed, the more he desires the life of Mr. Hyde, and the stronger Mr. Hyde becomes. Mr Hyde does speak quite aggressively also, which reveals that he is open minded and doesn’t think properly before speaking. Starbucks, an international coffee store, began in Seattle in 1971 as a collaborative of three business partners. The Victorian period followed the Romantic Period, which was a time of both industry and imagination. Towards the end of the Nineteenth century, Soho was one of the least respectable areas of London. Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a Gothic novella by Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson, first published in 1886.The work is also known as The Strange Case of Jekyll Hyde, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, or simply Jekyll and Hyde. 4. The novella explores the divided nature of human personality and Victorian society by telling the story of a respectable gentleman named Dr Jekyll, who devolves into a beast by the name of Mr Hyde. Stevenson builds up a sense of mounting fear by adding that Enfield is so frightened that he “listens and listens and begins to long for the sight of a policeman”. In the novel, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson uses duality of characters and setting to explore the struggle between good and evil. However, we learn that the shadowy character, Edward Hyde, lives in the less respectable part of London, Soho. Utterson decides to visit Dr Lanyon, an old friend of his and Dr Jekyll's. Hyde is also hazily described as … With his Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson presents encounters between several upstanding members of Victorian society and Mr. Hyde, a man who seems to disregard all social conventions in favor of selfishness and barbarity. For instance, Dr Jekyll’s laboratory is at the back of his houses “which showed no window”. Explain what happens to Jekyll when he takes the potion. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Vocabulary Flashcards, Quiz & Worksheet - Victorian Life & Society in Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Robert Louis Stevenson: Biography, Poems & Books. In a strange way, then, the villain of the story is more honest than its hypocritical hero. flashcard set, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Placing this dominance over another in such an intimate setting creates an image of rough sexual intercourse, where Mr. Hyde is the master in the relationship. Jekyll is a kind and respected English doctor who has repressed evil urges inside of him. Hyde actually comes to represent the embodiment of pure evil merely for the sake of evil. Word Count: 539. More specifically, it is set in London around 1886, which is also when the novel was first published. The other separation to note in the Victorian period is between the rich and the poor. How Does Stevenson Represent Victorian Society In His Novella 'Jekyll And Hyde'? Services. The reason that Mr Hyde who lives in Soho is in the novella at the time of dark is to show that his personality is a dark person inside. Victorian society reproved exuberance and excess of something which is why Utterson is 'austere' and drinks 'alone' to avoid exposing his desires. })(); For many of the settlers coming to America they, obviously, had formed their own views and beliefs on the world, including the thought on the way of life and what…. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? In the novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the author, Robert Louis Stevenson, details the story of 2 men, who appear to be polar opposites living in the Victorian era. 7 chapters | Jekyll and Hyde, a nineteenth-century Gothic novel, represents the latter separation, that between the rich and educated Jekyll and the poor and brutish Hyde. 'Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Tuesday, April 16, 2013. Longmans. He is a brute, small and remarkably strong as if he had physically labored his entire life. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. Generally speaking, men worked outside the home, while women labored in domestic settings. Hyde. With his Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson presents encounters between several upstanding members of Victorian society and Mr. Hyde, a man who seems to disregard all social conventions in favor of selfishness and barbarity. Victorian society was highly moralistic and encouraged respectable gentleman to keep their private lives carefully hidden away. He becomes the most hideous character of the novella, Mr Hyde. Hyde represents this fear. The Victorian Period and The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. … They saw these as completely alien to their own society and therefore they were terrified but also intrigued by them. The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a Horror story written by Robert Louis Stevenson. from his friends and Victorian society. He takes the will of his friend Dr Jekyll from his safe. Hyde, as his name indicates, represents the fleshy (sexual) aspect of man which the Victorians felt the need to "hide" — as Utterson once punned on his name: "Well, if he is Mr.Hyde, I will be Mr.Seek." However, in a general sense, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde proposes that Victorian society exacerb ated its members’ Hydes by the very act of imprisoning them. In this lesson, you will learn about the structure of Victorian society as reflected in Robert Louis Stevenson's 'Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Log in here for access. This suggests that Dr Jekyll does not want people to know what he does in his own time because the simple reason that Victorian society was too highly moralistic. The Anatomy of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This could be Stevenson criticising Victorian society; Science is unsettling. The rich often didn't work at all. By excluding women from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson avoids clouding up the plot with aspects irrelevant to the case.The one woman… The gruesome crimes committed by Mr Hyde reflect the views of his animalistic and lower class way of behavior. The Victorian period was defined by industry and progress. (function(){ In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson depicts a Victorian London that is almost entirely without women. But it was also defined by separate spheres, those between men and women and the rich and the poor. Explain why any other characters also explore the duality of human nature. In the novella, there are many different characters which use their language in different ways. Explain about Victorian society's interest with savages 2. The Monster in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Hyde is perceived as a character who stands out in the Victorian society. He is honest and straight to the point because he doesn’t mind to tell people his thoughts. This was a remarkably long reign, second only to Queen Elizabeth II, who is still the monarch today. There are two film interpretations of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, one of which was more original and advanced for having been made in 1931. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal There is also a hint of jealousy concerning Dr. Jekyll by Mr. Utterson. Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde Analysis 1409 Words | 6 Pages. Stevenson characterizes Dr. Jekyll as a desperate man dependent on his symbolic drug to escape the moral confines of Victorian society. Robert Louis Stevenson's classic "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekykll and Mr. Hyde" presents the theme of divided self while offering insight into Victorian England. Also, Dr Jekyll, one of the main characters of the book, is very different from what he appeared to be. Stevenson explores this in many different ways throughout the novella. The third-person narrator primarily follows the experiences of Gabriel Utterson, a lawyer. But by doubling these characters, Stevenson suggests that the separation might not actually exist. Jekyll’s personal battle with his inner demons creates a literal division of self that would have been empathized by society of the period. 1. The dominant theme of the novella is the theme of the double. Many realist novels came out in serial form, meaning in weekly parts. Dr. Lanyon casts a critical eye toward Dr. Jekyll’s rampant scientific experimentation. s1.async=true; All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Edward Hyde, however, is decidedly a representation of the lower class. What is interesting, however, is that Hyde is part of Jekyll. 's' : ''}}. Mr Hyde That evening the lawyer, Utterson, is troubled by what he has heard. By excluding women from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson avoids clouding up the plot with aspects irrelevant to the case. Duality of Victorian life: The momentous arrival of modernity in the 19th century introduced a number of dualities to Victorian life. Repression is indisputably a cause of the troubles in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.The repression here is that of Victorian England: no sexual appetites, no violence, and no great expressions of emotion, at least in the public sphere. Industry and progress also defined the Victorian period, as did the genre of the realist novel, which was extremely popular. They work, of course, but socializing is in some respects their real profession. Last Updated on May 10, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Dr.Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a renowned work of Robert Louis Stevenson from the Victorian era. Click to see full answer Also know, how does Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde related to the Victorian era? Elsewhere, in the novella, he is compared to a ‘hissing snake’, a ‘snarling dog’ and an ‘athletic monkey’ and this reinforces the idea that he is some way sub-human. Many values, morals, and principles of the era are apparent throughout the novel, especially those of male dominance and the importance of reputation. Write about Jekyll's ideas about his personality and why he wanted to make a potion. Word Count: 539. Hyde makes himself what the society thinks of him. Jekyll’s personal battle with his inner demons creates a literal division of self that would have been empathized by society of the period. Surprisingly, he pays off the attempt of blackmailing. The key themes in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde are scientific development, duality of mankind and the supernatural verus nature debate. The separation of his evil self (Hyde) is perhaps what you might be referring to as "human devolution". Some of the characters in the book turn out to be very different from what they at first appear to be. Living in the Victorian era, Jekyll was compelled to satisfy his appetites in secret and further repress them to preserve his reputation as an upright citizen. Spanish Grammar: Describing People and Things Using the Imperfect and Preterite, Talking About Days and Dates in Spanish Grammar, Describing People in Spanish: Practice Comprehension Activity, Quiz & Worksheet - Employee Rights to Privacy & Safety, Flashcards - Real Estate Marketing Basics, Flashcards - Promotional Marketing in Real Estate, What is Project-Based Learning? Throughout the novella, we are aware of the fact that the main “respectable” characters such as Utterson, Enfield, Lanyon and Jekyll all live in and around Cavendish Square. Robert Louis Stevenson’s short novella, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, had lasting effects on the minds of Victorian society. The theme of duality in the Victorian novel, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Pages: 7 (1544 words); Setting in 'The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde' Pages: 5 (1070 words) The theme of duality in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Pages: 7 (1723 words); Explore the Presentation of Duality in Stevenson's Novella, 'Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde' Pages: 3 (588 words) During Victorian times, lower-class citizens, who lived in crime ridden, impoverished areas, were regarded as a degenerate form of life. Mr Hyde is often described using animal imagery. Everything is sober and dignified, and you’re really not supposed to be happy. That is why Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde should be regarded as a social critique who enables us to attain vision toward the values of 19th century Late Victorian and the nature of human with its theme of duality of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. However Mr Hyde speaks with short simple and direct words like “What do you want”, this shows that he is very straight-forward, direct and emotional because he is not afraid to show his emotions or tell people what he thinks. Keywords: Femininity, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Men, Women, the Victorian Period I. Dr. Jekyll is a character foil to Mr. Hyde. Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, which was first published in 1886, in many ways inaugurates the return of the Gothic to prominence. Religion in Jekyll and Hyde. High Victorian society was very worried about the degeneration of the human species. See 'Victorian Gentleman' for a development of this idea. Stevenson draws on the extremes, with Lanyon’s house and Jekyll’s house both being in respectable areas, but the rooms Jekyll has rented for Hyde being in a poor neighbourhood. Stevenson describes this writing: For two months, however, I was true to my determination; for two months, I led a life of such severity as I had never before attained to, and enjoyed the compensations … To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Clayton has taught college English and has a PhD in literature. However, Jekyll and the others that live in and around Cavendish Square are in the novella at the time of light because they are bright characters who appear to be wholly good and removed from evil. The Victorian era is famous for its double standards and stringency which is exactly the subject matter of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Jekyll and Hyde: Science Vs Religion ... Dr Lanyon and Mr Enfield are perfect examples of this argument. For example, Mr Utterson receives a package from Dr Lanyon which he examined in his office. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} During the Victorian era, the importance of being highly regarded by one’s After reading the novella of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, what do you think is the social commentary?And what specific scenes or quotes make you think so? You can test out of the The characters used in the novella are an example of what Stevenson thought of London in Victorian … In Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, one man, lives a life among both the good and the evil side of himself, and is both condemned and look up to among the people. Some causes of pressure in … The novel reveals how Jekyll’s curiosity of the duality of men leads him to find his real persona. He is also uneducated in nature and seems to satisfy all his desires of violence and (probably) sex. Causes death and destruction and has the potential to upset the whole of Victorian society; Reputation. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Since the Victorians were so concerned with progress, the plight of the poor and the offenses of criminals made it seem like progress had stagnated. This interpretation violates Victorian morality, using the theme of the story all about sexual repression. either their good or bad side. In the novel The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the author, Robert Louis Stevenson, details the story of 2 men, who appear to be polar opposites living in the Victorian era. In Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Stevenson depicts a Victorian London that is almost entirely without women. Victorian female world, his concerns about gender issues, and his standpoints of human nature are all well presented. When Dr. Jekyll tries to go clean for two months. Historical Context in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Science and Industry in the Victorian era : Stevenson’s story portrays London at the height of the Victorian era, when scientific and industrial progress were rising on an exponential curve. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Last Updated on May 10, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. Dr. Henry Jekyll & Mr. Hyde Although Jekyll and Hyde are initially depicted as two separate characters, in reality, they are one. Comparisons between the Victorian Era and 21st Century Society are noticeably different – thus one will find it easy to nitpick the struggle and conflicts that the community has. To try to fit in society, people are willing to do whatever it takes to hide any characteristics that might fall short of the social norm. The Victorian period was defined by industry and progress. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? This system often proved disastrous, however, for women who were either abandoned or widowed. Many popular Gothic texts followed, including Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray and Bram Stoker's Dracula. courses that prepare you to earn You might think about it as resembling (pre-Netflix) television shows. | 1 This theme of religion is first brought to light in the first chapter when we are introduced to Mr Utterson, who says that he “inclines to … What are physiological effects of benzodiazepine use. For example, he also uses short direct way of speech. The first time we encounter Mr Hyde, is during Enfield’s terrible sight of a little girl being trampled over. Robert Louis Stevenson's classic "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekykll and Mr. Hyde" presents the theme of divided self while offering insight into Victorian England. Dr Jekyll And Hyde In The Strange Case Of Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde 1016 Words | 5 Pages. He proves this in chapter three, when he become quite angry and tries to dissuade Utterson from pursuing the topic of his will, “You do not understand my position”, and this shows that he is reserved and unwilling to express his emotions. var Tawk_API=Tawk_API||{}, Tawk_LoadStart=new Date(); Sociology 110: Cultural Studies & Diversity in the U.S. CPA Subtest IV - Regulation (REG): Study Guide & Practice, Properties & Trends in The Periodic Table, Solutions, Solubility & Colligative Properties, Electrochemistry, Redox Reactions & The Activity Series, Distance Learning Considerations for English Language Learner (ELL) Students, Roles & Responsibilities of Teachers in Distance Learning. Did you know… We have over 220 college Doctor Jekyll symbolizes the rich and powerful. He is what you might call a person with no values: a monster who seeks to satisfy his primal appetites that run against the ethos of Victorian society. Mr. Utterson finds much to his distaste as he traverses the cramped, smog-ridden streets of hyper-industrial London. Hyde represents this terrifying 'other'. study Starbucks and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay. Throughout the novella 'Jekyll and Hyde', Robert Louis Stevenson represents Victorian society in various ways. This was an age of technological progress (The Industrial Revolution) and a period in which European nations expanded their empires. This could be Stevenson trying to explain that the reason the structure of society is so rigid is due to people's fears with acknowledging that darker nature in them. In his exploration of the divided personality, Stevenson draws our attention to the divided nature of London in the 1880’s. During the Victorian era, the importance of being highly regarded by one’s Taken as a whole, these symbols of secrecy reinforce the idea that Victorian gentlemen were compelled to keep their private lives hidden away. There were many contributing factors to this division of society and personality. It is also significant that Hyde is only ever seen in the shadow, darkness or fog because he represents the hidden and mysterious side of man’s personality. What Inspired Robert Louis Stevenson to write Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde? For example, Dr Jekyll speaks in a very indirect, reserved and cagey way of speech. Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, is able to portray these experiences with the books primary characters: Dr Jekyll, Mr. Hyde, Utterson, and Lanyon. ', Create an account to start this course today. It is not only in Victorian times that these beliefs and values occur, but in our culture today we have similar ones, and hopefully as Dr Jekyll does, we try to live up to them to keep the world in peace and order. Get access risk-free for 30 days, He is the definition of a monster and his appearance is very easy to picture. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde vs Victorian During the late nineteenth century the flourishing of the Industrial Revolution caused a great deal of disorder and instability throughout all of Europe. Many times Saposnik brings up the indivisibility of self. This era was marked by prosperity and the intellectual growth of British society. During Victorian times, lower-class citizens, who lived in crime ridden, impoverished areas, were regarded as a degenerate form of Through the use of different types of speech, Stevenson seems to suggest that the more respectable and self-restrained the person the more insincere and emotionally dishonest they are. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, which Stevenson described as a “fine bogey tale” came out in 1886.It tapped into many anxieties of the Victorian era. Dr. jekyll and mr. hyde essay victorian era for essay age innocence. The relationship between scientific discourse and the Victorian Gothic is greatly emphasised when reading Robert Louis Stevenson's 1886 novella The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.The work is now associated with the mental condition of a 'split personality', where two personalities of differing character reside in one person. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons All rights reserved. The upper crust of Jekyll and Hyde are easy to spot. Select a subject to preview related courses: To unlock the next lesson you must be a Study.com Member. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is set in Victorian England. Introduction: This term paper is about De schooling Society which is a book written by Ivan Illich. To access the previous legacy system use the following link. We see that Mr. Jekyll is a submissive personality giving in to any request the dominant Mr. Hyde dictates. Chapter 4- The Carew Murder Case What is revealed about the levels of Victorian society in the first page of this chapter? Jekyll and Hyde also links to the Victorian fascination with the less developed savage cultures that they saw around the world. Mr Hyde is frequently juxtaposed with evil. Stevenson makes this point by including numerous symbols of privacy and secrecy throughout the novella. A week afterwards Dr Lanyon took to his bed, and in something less than a … The separation of his evil self (Hyde) is perhaps what you might be referring to as "human devolution". He is what you might call a person with no values: a monster who seeks to satisfy his primal appetites that run against the ethos of Victorian society. These men socialize with the two doctors in the story, Henry Jekyll, and Hastie Lanyon. Living in the Victorian era, Jekyll was compelled to satisfy his appetites in secret and further repress them to preserve his reputation as an upright citizen. We also learn that he lives on a “dingy street” in villainous, “blackguardly Surroundings”. The Victorian era, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled England for most of the nineteenth century, was a time of unprecedented technological progress and an age in which European nations carved up the world with their empires. While not a man of science, Utterson resembles his friend Dr. Lanyon—and perhaps Victorian society at large—in his devotion to reasonable explanations and his denial of the supernatural. Introduction Robert Louis Stevenson’s masterpiece story, titled with The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, has many Stevenson thus suggests that there is a Hyde in every Jekyll, that there is not so much of a separation between the classes as there seems to be. There were many contributing factors to this division of society and personality. The Victorian period spanned the reign of Queen Victoria, from 1837 to 1901. 5. Poole is the lower-classed disreputable character in the novella as he is Dr Jekyll’s butler. The package was then put in a safe so that no one could have seen it. Therefore, they had disposable time to learn and to socialize. Green & co. was the publisher name. An example of this is when Mr Enfield witnesses first hand a terrible sight of a little girl being trampled over, “for the man calmly trampled over the girl’s body. Before opening the package he locks the door of his own office which shows that Utterson is very secretive about his business and does not want to be associated with down going men. Getting started with Jekyll and Hyde: Key Context – AC studies Jekyll and Hyde, a nineteenth-century Gothic novel, represents the latter separation, that between the rich and educated Jekyll … imaginable degree, area of Dr. Jekyll has supressed all his primal instincts. Anyone can earn Looking at social class through a Robert Louis Stevenson's novel published in the Victorian era, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde shows how social class has build an strong idea in the way characters act and think. The book is more than a critique – it contains suggestions for changes…. Create your account, Already registered? Önder, A., (2019) "Darwin and Devolution in Victorian Dystopia: Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and The War of The Worlds", Pamukkale Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , sayı 37, Denizli, s. … His logic, however, makes him ill equipped to deal with the supernatural nature of the Jekyll-Hyde connection. Dr. Henry Jekyll, nicknamed in some copies of the story as Harry Jekyll, and his alternative personality, Mr. Edward Hyde, is the central character of Robert Louis Stevenson's 1886 novella Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.In the story, he is a good friend of main protagonist Gabriel John Utterson. This is clearly demonstrated after Dr. Jekyll’s two-month hiatus from donning the visage of Mr. Hyde; Dr. Jekyll finds that the pull … Robert Louis Stevenson’s novel, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, is able to portray these experiences with the books primary characters: Dr Jekyll, Mr. Hyde, ... During the Victorian time period the society revolved around a social class, which was male centered. Dr. Jekyll has supressed all his primal instincts. In his letter, Jekyll reveals a strange truth about his life: He was already living a life of duplicity long before his personality split into Jekyll and Hyde. In the 1980’s Starbucks began to expand beyond Seattle and the chain began…. Soho was the kind of area where you would find crowded, shabby streets, people of all different nationalities, cheap eating houses, music halls, brothels or criminals making crooked deals. Readers had to wait on cliffhangers to be resolved. In the second half of the Victorian period, the Gothic genre reemerged, perhaps because it was stirred back to life by sensational fiction, which was novels that sought to titillate the reader's senses. The novella explores the divided nature of human personality and Victorian society by telling the story of a respectable gentleman named Dr Jekyll, who devolves into a beast by the name of Mr Hyde. Stevenson uses language in a way that reveals to us the characters insincerity or sincerity by the way they speak. 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Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, In this lesson, you will learn about the structure of Victorian society as reflected in Robert Louis Stevenson's 'Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a disquieting story about the … flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? How does Robert Louis Stevenson use character, setting, narrative and language to explore the theme of duality in the Victorian novel, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? Causes the transformation of Jekyll into Hyde, which is frightening and disturbing; Science is powerful. How does Robert Louis Stevenson use character, setting, narrative and language to explore the theme of duality in the Victorian novel, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? By connecting these two areas, Stevenson seems to be saying that the two are actually inseparable, that the rich cannot exist without the poor, that Jekyll cannot exist without Hyde. They live in “that citadel of medicine”, in “ancient, handsome houses”, which have “a great air of wealth and comfort”. Many were sent to debtors' prisons, and many families were forced to live in work houses, where conditions were deplorable, at best. 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