Liam McIntyre: Spartacus Her deep feelings for her master will be sorely tested by spiraling events. He was 39 years old.  The two legions were initially successful—defeating a group of 30,000 rebels commanded by Crixus near Mount Garganus—but then were defeated by Spartacus. Batiatus arranges the purchase of Sura, but she is delivered mortally wounded, supposedly having been waylaid by bandits en route. This final season of Spartacus began airing January 25, 2013 and concluded April 12, 2013.  In Turkey, the show releases on CNBC-E TV, while in Italy Sky Television is the broadcaster who gained the rights of the series. Hi Spartacus in usa nga pinuno han uripon nga Tracio han ikatulo nga gera Serbil. Spartacus series creator Steven S. DeKnight said in an interview, "There are a 'couple of very strong candidates' for the role of Spartacus, and season two should begin production in New Zealand in April 2011." In Slovenia, the series started airing on Kanal A on 2 January 2012, from Monday to Friday at 9.45 pm.  Spartacus's forces then retreated toward Rhegium. Andy Whitfield was the actor who played Spartacus in Spartacus: Blood and Sand. The Spartakiad was a Soviet bloc version of the Olympic games. Based on the events in late 73 BC and early 72 BC, which suggest independently operating groups of escaped slaves and a statement by Plutarch, it appears that some of the escaped slaves preferred to plunder Italy, rather than escape over the Alps. The series aired in Canada on TMN beginning on January 25, 2010. - 71 a.C.n.) Robert Lloyd of the Los Angeles Times wrote that John Hannah as Batiatus "keeps the show grounded with a persuasive portrait of a man engaged in a stressful daily business. Batiatus' wife, Lucretia, is conducting an affair with Crixus. Spartacus is given a choice between satisfying his personal need for vengeance against the man who condemned his wife to slavery and eventual death, or making the larger sacrifices necessary to keep his budding army from breaking. Additionally, he revealed that Lesley-Ann Brandt, the actress who portrayed the slave Naevia, would also not be able to return for season 2 due to the delay in production. [clarification needed], Toussaint Louverture, a leader of the slave revolt that led to the independence of Haiti, has been called the "Black Spartacus". , In 2012 Gale Force Nine announced the creation of licensed board game based on the Spartacus series. 629 Pages. He is befriended by Varro, a Roman who sold himself into slavery in order to pay his debts and support his family. Spartacus's name was chosen in numerous football sides in Slavic Europe. Two volumes. None of Spartacus's actions overtly suggest that he aimed at reforming Roman society or abolishing slavery. Episodes. Spartacus a fost conducătorul celei de-a treia răscoale a sclavilor (73 î.Hr. – 71 pred Kr.  In Brazil, the show airs on Globosat HD. Etymology .  Spartacus was trained at the gladiatorial school (ludus) near Capua belonging to Lentulus Batiatus. bol rímsky otrok a vodca Spartakovho povstania otrokov v rokoch 73 pred Kr. Spartakus (* cca 109 pred Kr. - HBO Magyarország", "SPARTACUS: BLOOD AND SAND / Spartacus: Vér és homok", Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of Spartacus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Spartacus_(TV_series)&oldid=993557819, 2010s American LGBT-related drama television series, Articles with dead external links from May 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages using infobox television with editor parameter, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles needing additional references from January 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, TV.com template with ID different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Outstanding Performance by a Stunt Ensemble in a Television Series. Scenariul se concentrează pe figura istorică a lui Spartacus (interpretat de Andy Whitfield), un gladiator trac care în perioada 73 - 71 î.Hr. The second season eventually premiered on January 27, 2012. She and Batiatus have been unable to conceive a child, though she later falls pregnant with Crixus' child. Toussaint Louverture, a leader of the slave revolt that led to the independence of Haiti, has been called the "Black Spartacus". Spartacus: Vengeance (in lombard: Spartacus: La Vendèta) l'è una seri televisiva americana dal 2012, mandada in onda dal canal Starz, incentrada sui gesta da Spartacus, gladiatur trace interpretò da l'atür Liam McIntyre che l'ha sustituì Andy Whitfield.L'é ül pruseguiment da la serie televisiva Spartacus: Blood and Sand.. Atür e Persunagg.  Plutarch also writes that Spartacus' wife, a prophetess of the Maedi tribe, was enslaved with him. Spartacus. The second book in the series, Spartacus: Morituri by Mark Morris, was released in August 2012. Spartacus is a 1960 American epic historical drama movie directed by Stanley Kubrick and … In September 2010, Starz announced that Whitfield's cancer had returned and that he had decided not to return for the production of Season 2, then tentatively scheduled for September 2011. For the rest of the season the show had an average of 1.285 million viewers. He wishes to strip the honor of capturing Spartacus from Glaber. Production began in New Zealand in the summer of 2010 and the prequel aired beginning January 2011.. He studied construction at Sheffield Hallam University, England and worked in Lidcombe, New South Wales, Australia as an engineer before settling in Sydney in 1999. Crassus pursues Spartacus as he struggles to feed his ever-growing army of former slaves. Plutarch, Appian and Florus all claim that Spartacus died during the battle, but Appian also reports that his body was never found. Spartacus wins (as expected), and when the young man gives the "thumbs down", Batiatus, wishing to ingratiate himself with the boy's powerful father, forces Spartacus to comply and kill Varro. Dalton Trumbo gidoilariak Espartako eta Hirugarren Zerbitzari-Gerraren gertaerak moldatu zituen.  If escaping the Italian peninsula was indeed his goal, it is not clear why Spartacus turned south after defeating the legions commanded by the consuls Lucius Publicola and Gnaeus Clodianus, which left his force a clear passage over the Alps. Varro's wife kills Numerius after revealing to him that Varro was her husband, and Spartacus finally kills Batiatus in front of the seriously wounded Lucretia. In 2012 Gale Force Nine announced the creation of licensed board game based on the Spartacus series.  In the United Kingdom, Bravo began airing the series on May 25, 2010. He was a heavyweight gladiator called a murmillo. The prisoner's true name unknown, Lentulus Batiatus, the owner of a ludus in Capua, suggests to name him "Spartacus", because he fought like the ferocious Thracian king of that name.  Spartacus Books, one of the longest running collectively-run leftist book stores in North America, is also named in his honour.  Six thousand survivors of the revolt captured by the legions of Crassus were crucified, lining the Appian Way from Rome to Capua.. Jenna Lind (season 3) as Kore – a loyal slave to Marcus Crassus the Roman tasked to bring an end to Spartacus and his rebellion. , In 2012 Titan Books announced the publication of a series of novels based on Spartacus: Blood and Sand. Tom Hobbs (season 2) as Seppius – a young Capua citizen of note. Kyle Newman was the director, and the producers were Andy Collen and Jeff Krelitz. Little is known about him beyond the events of the war, and surviving historical accounts are sometimes contradictory. Doctore, making good on his word, tries to kill Ashur but his intended victim eludes him. As Batiatus fends off repeated attempts by his professional rival Tullius to obtain Gannicus, his relationships with his father Titus and friend Solonius begin to suffer the strain of Quintus' relentless ambition. By his side stands his devoted wife, Lucretia, who is willing to help her husband achieve his goals regardless of the cost. Spartacus (Greek: Σπάρτακος Spártakos; Latin: Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic. Spartacus on Stanley Kubrickin ohjaama elokuva, joka sai ensi-iltansa 1960.Elokuva kertoo historiallisesta traakialaisesta gladiaattorista nimeltään Spartacus, joka johti orjakapinaa roomalaisia vastaan ensimmäisellä vuosisadalla eaa. The rebels were now under siege and cut off from their supplies. The fiction series was inspired by the historical figure of Spartacus, a Thracian gladiator who from 73 to 71 BC led a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic departing from Capua. Spartacus (arvatavasti 120 – 71 eKr) oli gladiaatorite ülestõusu juht. Spartacus (movie) References. a condus o răscoală majoră a sclavilor împotriva Republicii romane. A Spartacus egy 1960-ban bemutatott film, melyet Stanley Kubrick rendezett Howard Fast azonos című könyve alapján. ... Wikipedia; In Wikipedia. The name Spartacus is otherwise manifested in the Black Sea region. I andre af filmens store roller medvirker Laurence Olivier og Peter Ustinov. Izar nagusia Kirk Douglas izan zuen, Laurence Olivierrek Marcus Licinius Crassus bere etsaia antzeztuz. Spartacus (tiếng Hy Lạp: Σπάρτακος, Spártakos; tiếng Latinh: Spartacus sinh năm 111 tr.CN - 71 trước CN), theo các sử học gia, là một đấu sĩ nô lệ, người đã trở thành một trong các thủ lĩnh của cuộc nổi dậy không thành công của các nô lệ chống lại Cộng hòa La Mã được biết là Chiến tranh nô lệ lần ba. The Thracian and his wife Sura are captured by Glaber the next day; the Thracian is condemned to die in the gladiator arena for his crime, while Sura is taken away, condemned to slavery. Spartacus Wiki. Florus described him as one "who, from a Thracian mercenary, had become a Roman soldier, that had deserted and became enslaved, and afterward, from consideration of his strength, a gladiator". Spartacus er en amerikansk film fra 1960, instrueret af Stanley Kubrick og baseret på Howard Fasts roman af samme navn, inspireret af den historiske Spartacus og hans slaveoprør mod romerne under den Tredje Slavekrig .. Spartacus bliver i filmen spillet af Kirk Douglas og er en af hans mest berømte roller. Praetor Claudius Glaber and his Roman troops are sent to Capua to crush Spartacus' growing band of freed slaves before they can inflict further damage. The final battle that saw the assumed defeat of Spartacus in 71 BC took place on the present territory of Senerchia on the right bank of the river Sele in the area that includes the border with Oliveto Citra up to those of Calabritto, near the village of Quaglietta, in the High Sele Valley, which at that time was part of Lucania. , On March 9, 2010, IGN.com reported that production of Season 2 had been delayed due to star Whitfield being diagnosed with early-stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Spartacus este un serial de televiziune american care a avut premiera pe canalul Starz la 22 ianaurie 2010.  While Crassus feared that Pompey's arrival would cost him the credit, Spartacus unsuccessfully tried to reach an agreement with Crassus. Ray Park and Heath Freeman were cast. In India and Pakistan, the show is currently airing (as of June 2011) on HBO. Classical historians were divided as to the motives of Spartacus. In these altercations Spartacus proved to be an excellent tactician, suggesting that he may have had previous military experience. Though ordered not to engage the rebels, Mummius attacked at a seemingly opportune moment but was routed.  On December 22, 2009, a month before it premiered, it was announced that the show was renewed by Starz for a second season. Spartacus (id.) "And then Andy [Whitfield] said, 'I really think the show should go forward without me. A film Spartacus életét és a Harmadik Rabszolgalázadás történetét dolgozza fel.  On June 4, 2012, Starz announced the third and final season, titled Spartacus: War of the Damned.. The premiere episode of the series set a record for Starz, with 553,000 viewers on their network, and another 460,000 on Encore, where the show was available only that weekend. Eine Gegengeschichte des Altertums nach den Legenden der Zigeuner". Spartacus Stanley Kubrickeko 1960an zuzendutako estatubatuar film epikoa da, Howard Fasten izen bereko eleberrian oinarrituta.  Of the slaves that joined Spartacus ranks, they were from the countryside. Spartacus è una serie televisiva statunitense incentrata sulle gesta di Spartaco, gladiatore trace interpretato dall'attore australiano Andy Whitfield, successivamente sostituito da Liam McIntyre.Sito delle gesta di Spartaco è l'Anfiteatro Campano di Santa Maria Capua Vetere (Caserta), ovvero l'Antica Capua, citata più volte nel serial dai protagonisti. Craig Walsh Wrightson (season 1 and prequel) as Solonius – a rival lanista and former friend to the House of Batiatus. , Starz released the first full trailer for Spartacus: War of the Damned on July 13, 2012. harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFStrauss2009 (. Spartacus (circa 120 BC – circa 70 BC, at the end of the Third Servile War), according to Roman historians, was a gladiator-slave who became the leader of an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Roman Republic. Batiatus, who has been unable to control Spartacus during his first days of training, promises to find Sura and reunite them in exchange for the promising neophyte's cooperation in the arena. Noting well the Thracian's fierce raw talent and popularity with the masses, Batiatus purchases him for training within the walls of his ludus under the tutelage of Oenomaus, a former gladiator and fellow slave who is known to the gladiators as 'Doctore', meaning instructor. L'é cugnusü cum'é Ül s'ciav che l'ha sfidò l'Imper , The Greek essayist Plutarch describes Spartacus as "a Thracian of Nomadic stock", in a possible reference to the Maedi tribe.  The distance between these locations and the subsequent events indicate that the slaves operated in two groups commanded by the remaining leaders Spartacus and Crixus.  The series airs in Ireland on TV3. In the ensuing chaos of the gladiators' killing of the guards and some guests, Crixus persuades Doctore to join him with Spartacus, while Illithyia escapes and has her guards seal the door to the ludus from the outside.  After this, Crassus's legions were victorious in several engagements, forcing Spartacus farther south through Lucania as Crassus gained the upper hand.  Following the closure of Bravo on UK television, Sky1 has now picked up the rights to the series and will air all subsequent seasons. "It's unheard of to recast your titular character in a television show, and we did a lot of soul searching about whether we even wanted to try," DeKnight said. In 2016 the series was made available on Netflix. Her murder was secretly ordered by Batiatus to keep Spartacus loyal and focused. Alarmed at the continued threat posed by the slaves, the Senate charged Marcus Licinius Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome and the only volunteer for the position, with ending the rebellion. These defeats are depicted in divergent ways by the two most comprehensive (extant) histories of the war by Appian and Plutarch..  They spent the winter of 73–72 BC training, arming and equipping their new recruits, and expanding their raiding territory to include the towns of Nola, Nuceria, Thurii and Metapontum. '" On January 17, 2011, it was announced that Australian film and TV actor Liam McIntyre had been selected to replace Whitfield. Roomalaiset olivat vanginneet Spartacuksen Capuan gladiaattorikouluun, mutta hän pakeni sieltä tovereineen. Glaber is persuaded by his wife Ilithyia to seek greater glory, decides to break off attacking the Getae and directly confront the forces of Mithridates in Asia Minor. However, Batiatus' opponents would not sit idly and allow his ascent to greatness without challenge. Crixus grievously wounds Lucretia with a sword stab to her abdomen, piercing her womb and killing their unborn child. Veteran gladiators Barca and Gannicus accept the rising star of Crixus but fear that their own careers will suffer, as the machinations of Batiatus and Lucretia to court Capua's elite end in tragedy for several members of the household. Though the rebels lacked military training, they displayed a skilful use of available local materials and unusual tactics when facing the disciplined Roman armies. Once free, the escaped gladiators chose Spartacus and two Gallic slaves—Crixus and Oenomaus—as their leaders. Doctore initially stops Spartacus from killing Batiatus. In 2014, Syfy began to air an edited version of the series. The first one, titled Spartacus: Swords & Ashes, was written by J.M.  Starz announced that the show would nevertheless continue, and planned on recasting the role of Spartacus in the wake of Whitfield's exit. Purchased as an undisciplined and disheveled recruit in the first episode, Crixus the Gaul initially endures mockery and threats of death, before eventually rising to become a gladiator of skill and fame second only to Gannicus. Spartacus gains support from Mira, Batiatus' wife's slave, who is tasked with opening the gate to the villa from the training area.  The authors refer to the Thracian tribe of the Maedi, which occupied the area on the southwestern fringes of Thrace, along its border with the Roman province of Macedonia – present day south-western Bulgaria. The English language release of the game Spartacus: A Game of Blood and Treachery had a limited release at Gen Con 2012 and a general release to game and hobby stores on September 28, 2012. Spartacus (Tracia, circa 109 A.C. – Lucania, 71 A.C.) l'è stò un gladiatur e cundutier trace, ca l'ha capegiò una rivolta da s'ciavi, la pùsé impegnativa dai guer servili che Roma la dovù affruntà. je bio znameniti vođa ustanka rimskih robova, poznatog i kao Treći robovski rat.. Rođen je kao slobodni Tračanin negde oko 111. godine pne. Spartacus (n.100–71 eaa.) In 2012, Ubisoft announced that they would be publishing a video game based on the series. Aastal 73 eKr alustas ta gladiaatorite ülestõusu. In order to get his revenge, Spartacus enlists the help of Crixus and the rest of the gladiators to defeat the house of Batiatus once and for all. 'l è 'n film stòric americàṅ dal 1960 ad Stanley Kubrick trat da 'l rumànś umònim 'd Howard Fast dal 1952. Several sports clubs around the world, in particular the former Soviet and the Communist bloc, were named after the Roman gladiator. On June 1, 2012 Starz released a teaser video of the next season on YouTube. In modern times, Spartacus became an icon for communists and socialists.  Whitfield gave his blessing for Starz to recast the role when he announced he would not return. " , When the legions managed to catch a portion of the rebels separated from the main army, discipline among Spartacus's forces broke down as small groups independently attacked the oncoming legions. 1 - HBO Polska", "Spartacus: Vér és homok 1.  On August 1, 2011, Starz released a trailer indicating that the long-delayed second season would premiere in January 2012, under the new subtitle, Spartacus: Vengeance. A címszerepet Kirk Douglas kapta, filmbéli ellenfele Laurence Olivier, aki a római hadvezért, Marcus Licinius Crassust alakítja. He is harassed by more senior gladiators, notably Crixus, an undefeated Gaul, and Barca, a Carthaginian. However, all sources agree that he was a former gladiator and an accomplished military leader. The series is also scheduled to premiere in Poland on HBO Poland starting from June 19, 2010 and in Hungary on HBO Magyarország starting from June 1, 2010. , About 70 slaves were part of the plot. The English language release of the game Spartacus: A Game of Blood and Treachery had a limited release at Gen Con 2012 and a general release to game and hobby stores on September 28, 2012.  Minor sources mention that there were some attempts at raft and shipbuilding by the rebels as a means to escape, but that Crassus took unspecified measures to ensure the rebels could not cross to Sicily, and their efforts were abandoned. I want this story told. Suomi: Spartacus, oli orja joka kapinoi Rooman tasavaltaa vastaan.  Although this interpretation is not specifically contradicted by classical historians, no historical account mentions that the goal was to end slavery in the Republic. , On February 26, 2011 interview with Entertainment Weekly, DeKnight revealed that the second season was set to air "the end of January" 2012. Each issue spotlighted a character from the upcoming television series, mostly the minor gladiator rivals of the main cast. Add new page. Gannicus again proves himself to be the champion of Capua and the god of the arena and by virtue of his win against Solonius' gladiators, becomes the champion of Capua and gains his freedom. The series culminates in a direct all-out battle between Spartacus and Crassus. Ilithyia, who has hated Spartacus since he embarrassed her husband Glaber by his mutiny, seduces the young man and convinces him to demand death for the loser of the match. Furthermore, the Romans considered the rebellion more of a policing matter than a war. Gannicus is a skilled warrior almost without equal, who wields his dual swords in the arena with great prowess. Spartacus soon learns that Sura was sold to a Syrian slave trader. English: Spartacus, the slave who rebeled against the Roman republic. English Wikipedia has an article on: Spartacus. Against all odds in the arena he slays the four gladiators appointed to execute him and becomes an instant sensation with the crowd. In 72-71 BC, Roman general Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, proconsul of the Roman province of Macedonia, marched against the Getae, who were allies of Rome's enemy, Mithridates VI of Pontus. Spartacus casts off his heritage as a Thracian and forgets his dream of freedom, becoming content with life as champion. Also due to Social War, some of Spartacus' ranks were legion veterans. Blood and Sand Gods of the Arena Vengeance War of the Damned Rebels. , In 2009, Devil's Due published a four-part prequel comic series, titled Spartacus – Blood And Sand. When the arena opens Solonius' and Batiatus' gladiators compete with each other, Batiatus' gladiators prevailing in the contest. This rebellion, interpreted by some as an example of oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning oligarchy, has provided inspiration for many political thinkers, and has been featured in literature, television, and film. , Over two months before the premiere, on November 7, 2011, Starz announced that it was renewing Spartacus for a third season–a second year with Liam McIntyre in the titular role; and fourth year on the air overall.. The Thracian is shipped to Capua in Italy, a center of gladiator training. In this area, since 1899, there have been finds of armour and swords of the Roman era.  Appian also states that he later abandoned that goal, which might have been no more than a reflection of Roman fears. This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 06:12. Pronunciation IPA : /ˈspɑːtəkəs/ IPA : /ˈspɑːɹtəkəs/ Proper noun . Paperback.  Spartacus now turned his forces around and brought his entire strength to bear on the legions in a last stand, in which the rebels were routed completely, with the vast majority of them being killed on the battlefield.. 111. pne. – † 71 pred Kr.) I give you the blessing. , Andy Whitfield died on September 11, 2011, from complications of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Usa ka turók ini nga barasahon. This page was last changed on 10 May 2018, at 11:41. - 71 î.Hr. Though few in number, they seized kitchen utensils, fought their way free from the school, and seized several wagons of gladiatorial weapons and armour. The turning point comes when Spartacus is set to fight his only friend in the ludus, Varro, in an exhibition match celebrating the coming to manhood of the Capuan magistrate's son, Numerius. Spartacus (c. 100 a.C.n. Spartacus's name was also used in athletics in the Soviet Union and communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Spartacus on ensimmäinen Kubrickin ohjaama värielokuva. Spartakus (bahasa Yunani: Σπάρτακος, Spártakos'; bahasa Latin: Spartacus) (sekitar tahun 109-71 SM) adalah seorang pemimpin budak terkemuka dalam Perang Budak Ketiga, sebuah pemberontakan budak besar melawan Republik Romawi.Sedikit yang diketahui tentang Spartakus di luar peristiwa perang, dan catatan sejarah hidupnya kadang-kadang kontradiktif dan mungkin tidak selalu dapat dipercaya. Knowing that it is all or nothing when it comes to resistance of his enslavement, he resolves to "kill them all" and lead a revolt against the ruling house he once fought for. "Spartakus.  The escaped slaves defeated soldiers sent after them, plundered the region surrounding Capua, recruited many other slaves into their ranks, and eventually retired to a more defensible position on Mount Vesuvius.. Arweinydd byddin o gaethweision yn erbyn Rhufain oedd Spartacus (bu farw 71 CC).. Nid oes sicrwydd am hanes cynnar Spartacus; dywed rhai haneswyr ei fod wedi ei gymeryd yn garcharor wrth ymladd yn erbyn Rhufain, eraill ei fod wedi bod yn filwr ym myddin Rhufain, wedi dianc ac yna wedi cael ei ddal. Meanwhile, Barca, wishing to buy his freedom, was slain by Batiatus with the help of slave and former gladiator, Ashur. The response of the Romans was hampered by the absence of the Roman legions, which were already engaged in fighting a revolt in Spain and the Third Mithridatic War. Clements and released on January 3, 2012.. While suffering from both his wound in this match and his remorse and sorrow over having to kill his friend, Spartacus has fever dreams that lead him to suspect that Batiatus arranged Sura's death. The mini-series features the history of the House of Batiatus and the city of Capua before the arrival of Spartacus. Wikipedia . Spartacus Crixus Gannicus Agron Oenomaus Mira Naevia Romans. Against all of this, the city's splendid new arena nears completion and with it the opening games that will make men into gods. Related pages. , At this time, the legions of Pompey returned from Hispania and were ordered by the Senate to head south to aid Crassus. Former champion gladiator Oenomaus reluctantly retires from combat to become Doctore, while Syrian recruits Ashur and Dagan become fierce enemies as Ashur tries to prove himself worthy of being a gladiator. Plutarch writes that Spartacus wished to escape north into Cisalpine Gaul and disperse his men back to their homes.  With these successes, more and more slaves flocked to the Spartacan forces, as did "many of the herdsmen and shepherds of the region", swelling their ranks to some 70,000. " Of the people who fought in Spartacus' army, it shows that the revolt did not have the goal of freeing all slaves.  Spartacus has been a great inspiration to left-wing revolutionaries, most notably the German Spartacus League (1915–18), a forerunner of the Communist Party of Germany.