See, e.g., Zosimus, Historia Nova, I.71. He was captured and subsequently sold as a slave. Though there were other slave revolts in the future. Groups of hardy and desperate men now joined the rebels, and when the praetor Publius Varinius took the field against them he found them entrenched like a regular army on the plain. [37] Crassus treated his legions with harsh, even brutal, discipline, reviving the punishment of unit decimation within his army. [49] The rebel slaves were not a professional army, and had reached their limit. "[17] Glaber's forces besieged the slaves on Mount Vesuvius, blocking the only known way down the mountain. [32], Plutarch then goes on to detail a conflict not mentioned in Appian's history. [27] Initially, the consular armies were successful. The insurgents reoccupied Campania, and with the defeat of Gaius Thoranius, the quaestor of Varinius, they obtained possession of nearly the whole of southern Italy. The events of 72 BC, according to Plutarch's version of events. [50], With discipline breaking down, Spartacus turned his forces around and brought his entire strength to bear on the oncoming legions. [10] In 73 BC, a group of some 200 gladiators in the Capuan school owned by Lentulus Batiatus plotted an escape. According to Plutarch, Spartacus, with the main body of his army, defeated the consul Lentulus and then pressed towards the Alps. As the revolt and raids were occurring in Campania—which was a vacation region of the rich and influential in Rome, and the location of many estates—the revolt quickly came to the attention of Roman authorities. The Third Servile War, also called the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of several slave rebellions against the Roman Republic.. Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic. : The remnants of the rebel army were captured, and thousands were crucified along the Appian Way as a warning to those who would rise against Rome. They were unwilling to flee any farther, and groups of men were breaking away from the main force to independently attack the oncoming legions of Crassus. These punishments would have been brought swiftly once his escape plan was discovered. [33] Crassus was no stranger to Roman politics, or to military command as he had been a field commander under Lucius Cornelius Sulla during the second civil war between Sulla and the Marian faction in 82 BC, and had served under Sulla during the dictatorship that followed. The army of Lentulus was deployed to bar Spartacus' path, and the consuls hoped to trap the rebel slaves between them. Their actions as Consuls greatly furthered the subversion of Roman political institutions and contributed to the eventual transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. As Crassus had feared, Pompey claimed the credit of finishing the war, and received the honour of a triumph, while only a simple ovation was decreed to Crassus. He had prevailed upon the Senate to reinforce his campaign by recalling Lucius Licinius Lucullus from Thrace and Pompey from Spain, but quickly realized the danger of such a move. This would all change with the Third Servile War. After this defeat, both consuls were relieved of command of their armies by the Roman Senate and recalled to Rome. The Third was the only one directly to threaten the Roman heartland of Italia. Third Servile War is similar to these military conflicts: Battle of Mount Vesuvius, First Servile War, Battle of the Silarius River and more. "[59] The wealthy owners of the latifundia began to reduce the number of agricultural slaves, opting to employ the large pool of formerly dispossessed freemen in sharecropping arrangements. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Spartacus and The Third Servile War. This appears to be an interpretation of events based on the following: the regions that Florus lists as being raided by the slaves include Thurii and Metapontum, which are geographically distant from Nola and Nuceria.[24]. Since the Third Servile War was ultimately an unsuccessful rebellion, no firsthand account of the slaves' motives and goals exists, and historians writing about the war propose contradictory theories. The Third Servile War rocked the foundations of the Roman Republic more thoroughly than any other slave revolt in the Empire's history. Both men were jointly elected consuls in recognition of their victory. Certainly the revolt had shaken the Roman people, who "out of sheer fear seem to have begun to treat their slaves less harshly than before. In this last stand, the Battle of the Siler River, Spartacus' forces were finally routed completely, with the vast majority of them being killed on the battlefield. Historian Mark Cartwright comments on this:Rome's economy relied chiefly on agriculture and war: farming sustained the populace while military campaigns generated necessary funds for various other needs. The Third Servile War (73–71 BC), also called the Gladiator War and the War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of a series of unrelated and unsuccessful slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Roman Servile Wars. While the slaves lacked military training, Spartacus' forces displayed ingenuity in their use of available local materials, and in their use of clever, unorthodox tactics when facing the disciplined Roman armies. [53] After this action, Pompey sent a dispatch to the Senate, saying that while Crassus certainly had conquered the slaves in open battle, he himself had ended the war, thus claiming a large portion of the credit and earning the enmity of Crassus. Between 73 and 71 BC, a band of escaped slaves—originally a small cadre of about 78[1] primarily Thracian, Gallic and Germanic[2] escaped gladiators which grew into a band of over 120,000[3] men, women and children—wandered throughout and raided Italy with relative impunity under the guidance of several leaders, including the famous gladiator-general Spartacus. The Third Servile War, also known as the Gladiator War, was a major slave rebellion against the Roman Republic which occurred from 73 to 71 BC. Freedom was within sight, and Plutarch characterized Spartacus as holding realistic views about his army’s chances of defeating a fully mobilized Rome. It is difficult to determine the extent to which the events of this war contributed to changes in the use and legal rights of Roman slaves. [54], While most of the rebel slaves were killed on the battlefield, some 6,000 survivors were captured by the legions of Crassus. The able-bodied adults of this band were a surprisingly effective armed force that repeatedly showed they could withstand the Roman military, from the local Campanian patrols, to the Roman militia, and to trained Roman legions under consular command. Varinius followed, but was defeated in several engagements and narrowly escaped being taken prisoner. Spartacus, by Denis Foyatier, c. 1830, displayed at the Louvre. Plutarch writes that Spartacus merely wished to escape northwards into Cisalpine Gaul and disperse his men back to their homes.[25]. The rebellion was finally crushed through the concentrated military effort of a single commander, Marcus Licinius Crassus, although the rebellion continued to have indirect effects on Roman politics for years to come. [12] There is some question as to Spartacus's nationality, however, as a Thraex (plural Thraces or Threses) was a type of gladiator in Rome, so the title "Thracian" may simply refer to the style of gladiatorial combat in which he was trained. However, neither account directly contradicts the other, but simply reports different events, ignoring some events in the other account, and reporting events that are unique to that account. Third Servile War. are given in the traditional "Book:verse" format, rather than edition-specific page numbers. In Steven Saylor ’s novel Arms of Nemesis (the second book in his Roma Sub Rosa series) the Second Slave War (Servile War) is mentioned in detail during a dinner party with Marcus Licinius Crassus who is about to campaign against the rebel slaves of Spartacus in the Third Slave War. [41], Spartacus' forces then retreated towards Rhegium. The third slave revolt, and the one to occur on the Italian mainland during the republican period, was led by an escaped Gladiator named Spartacus. This indicates the existence of two groups: Lucius Gellius Publicola eventually attacked Crixus and a group of some 30,000 followers who are described as being separate from the main group under Spartacus. Fictional accounts—such as Stanley Kubrick's 1960 film Spartacus—sometimes portray the rebelling slaves as ancient Roman freedom fighters, struggling to change a corrupt Roman society and to end the Roman institution of slavery. A force of some 10,000 men under Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius was defeated at Mutina. [7], For the most part, slaves were treated harshly and oppressively during the Roman republican period. While Spartacus was attempting to carry his rebellion to Sicily, Crassus endeavoured to end the war by effectively besieging the entire “toe” of Italy. Third Servile War; Third Servile War. The Roman forces under the command of a cavalry officer named Lucius Quinctius and the Questor Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa[citation needed] were routed when some of the escaped slaves turned to meet them. [22], The victories of the rebel slaves did not come without a cost. Third Servile War (73-71 BC) Third Servile War also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars. What they intended to do with this force is somewhat difficult for modern readers to determine. The Gladiator Mosaic at the Galleria Borghese, In the Roman Republic of the 1st century, gladiatorial games were one of the more popular forms of entertainment. Crassus was now compelled to bring the war to a close on his terms and on an accelerated timeline. Third Servile War . [20], With these successes, more and more slaves flocked to the Spartacan forces, as did "many of the herdsmen and shepherds of the region", swelling their ranks to some 70,000. Spartacus was a capable and energetic leader, and he did his best to check the excesses of the men he commanded. Third Servile War [edit | edit source] Through the times in Roman history, it has been known that there had been slaves in past. [29], Appian claims that at this point Spartacus changed his intention of marching on Rome—implying this was Spartacus' goal following the confrontation in Picenum[31]—as "he did not consider himself ready as yet for that kind of a fight, as his whole force was not suitably armed, for no city had joined him, but only slaves, deserters, and riff-raff", and decided to withdraw into southern Italy once again. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. New!! It was particularly alarming to Rome because its military seemed powerless to suppress it. At this point in the history, there is a divergence in the classical sources as to the course of events which cannot be reconciled until the entry of Marcus Licinius Crassus into the war. Crossword Clue The crossword clue Leader in the Third Servile War with 9 letters was last seen on the January 01, 2006.We think the likely answer to this clue is SPARTACUS.Below are all possible answers to this clue ordered by its rank. Shows the initial skirmishes between elements of the two sides, the turn-about of the Spartacan forces for the final confrontation. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. A small body of rebels escaped from the field, but they were met and cut to pieces at the foot of the Alps by Pompey. Third Servile War . Definition of third servile war in the dictionary. The Third Servile War was the only one to directly threaten the Roman heartland of Italia and was doubly alarming to the Roman people due to the repeated successes of the rapidly … Spartacus took up a strong position in the mountainous country of Petelia (near Strongoli in modern Calabria) and inflicted a severe defeat on the vanguard of the pursuing Romans. Marcus Licinius Crassus takes command of the Roman legions, confronts Spartacus, and forces the rebel slaves to retreat through Lucania to the straits near Messina. The events of 72 BC, according to Appian's version of events. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The novel was published in France in 1911 and later published in 1955 for the English audience. [17] Both men stood for the consulship of 70 BC, even though Pompey was ineligible because of his youth and lack of service as praetor or quaestor. In an audacious move, Spartacus’s forces clambered down the precipices and put the Romans to flight. A force of Gauls and Germans, who had withdrawn from the main body and encamped some distance away, were attacked and destroyed by Crassus. [21] The rebel slaves spent the winter of 73–72 BC training, arming and equipping their new recruits, and expanding their raiding territory to include the towns of Nola, Nuceria, Thurii and Metapontum. Spartacus, 19th-century illustration. Upon taking command, Crassus is said to have carried out a decimation of the consular armies that had taken the field against Spartacus in an attempt to restore order; one in ten of the men were selected by lot and killed. [52], The rebellion of the Third Servile War had been annihilated by Crassus. [4], Even classical historians, who were writing only years after the events themselves, seem to be divided as to what the motives of Spartacus were. If Spartacus did intend to march on Rome, it was a goal he must have later abandoned. story of romance set in turn-of-the-century Paris and several provincial towns. Spartacus was a Thracian who had served in the Roman army but seems to have deserted. The Third was the only one directly to threaten the Roman heartland of Italia. The historian Appian suggests that at this point, Spartacus’s army numbered some 70,000 men. Strachan-Davidson on Appian. Sources disagree on whether Crassus had requested reinforcements, or whether the Senate simply took advantage of Pompey's return to Italy, but Pompey was ordered to bypass Rome and head south to aid Crassus. This war started in Southern Italy. They moved around the base of Vesuvius, outflanked the army, and annihilated Glaber's men. The Third was the only one directly to threaten the Roman heartland of Italia. [40], The tide seemed to have turned in the war. The events of early 71 BC. Appian is uncertain whether he decimated the two consular legions for cowardice when he was appointed their commander, or whether he had his entire army decimated for a later defeat (an event in which up to 4,000 legionaries would have been executed). However, later that year, Rome dispatched military force under praetorian authority to put down the rebellion. [19], A second expedition, under the praetor Publius Varinius, was then dispatched against Spartacus. [30] Following this victory, Spartacus pushed northwards with his followers (some 120,000) as fast as he could travel, "having burned all his useless material, killed all his prisoners, and butchered his pack-animals in order to expedite his movement". This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Academia - The Third Servile War: Spartacus' Just War Against Oppression, Ancient History Encyclopedia - The Spartacus Revolt. [39] Minor sources mention that there were some attempts at raft and shipbuilding by the rebels as a means to escape, but that Crassus took unspecified measures to ensure the rebels could not cross to Sicily, and their efforts were abandoned. Gellius engaged a group of about 30,000 slaves, under the command of Crixus, near Mount Garganus and killed two-thirds of the rebels, including Crixus himself.[28]. Many popular modern accounts of the war claim that there was a factional split i… During the peak of Roman history, Rome had conquered much of the European hemisphere. How many hills was Rome built on? According to Plutarch, Spartacus made a bargain with Cilician pirates to transport him and some 2,000 of his men to Sicily, where he intended to incite a slave revolt and gather reinforcements. In order to supply gladiators for the contests, several training schools, or ludi, were established throughout Italy. They initially viewed the revolt as more a major crime wave than an armed rebellion. Corrections? Owners could abuse, injure or even kill their own slaves without legal consequence. Many popular modern accounts of the war claim that there was a factional split in the escaped slaves between those under Spartacus, who wished to escape over the Alps to freedom, and those under Crixus, who wished to stay in southern Italy to continue raiding and plundering. With this in mind, people of these conquered cities were taken in as slaves. Crassus' legions followed and upon arrival built fortifications across the isthmus at Rhegium, despite harassing raids from the rebel slaves. Pompey was already a formidable force in the capital, and he had just completed the Roman reconquest of Spain by crushing a rebellion under Quintus Sertorius. For some reason, Varinius seems to have split his forces under the command of his subordinates Furius and Cossinius. Omissions? The Third Servile War was significant to the broader history of ancient Rome in its effect on the careers of Pompey and Crassus. [38], Plutarch only mentions the decimation of 50 legionaries of one cohort as punishment after Mummius' defeat in the first confrontation between Crassus and Spartacus. Although Pompey's forces did not directly engage Spartacus' forces at any time, his legions moving in from the north were able to capture some 5,000 rebels fleeing the battle, "all of whom he slew". Rather than crossing the Alps and returning home, however, Spartacus marched towards Rome itself. In social circles of students and postgraduates, Essays On Third Servile War we are known as independent association of professionals, who work in the field of academic writing for order (term papers, dissertations, research proposals, lab reports, etc). Since the Third Servile War was ultimately an unsuccessful rebellion, no firsthand account of the slaves' motives and goals exists, and historians writing about the war propose contradictory theories. What they intended to do with this force is somewhat difficult for modern readers to determine. 1.120; Appian. The legal status and rights of Roman slaves also began to change. [4], Through varying degrees throughout Roman history, the existence of a pool of inexpensive labor in the form of slaves was an important factor in the economy. There he intended to cross to Sicily, where the first two Servile Wars (135–132 bce and 104–99 bce) had been fought. Plutarch claims this occurred in the Picenum region, while Appian places the initial battles between Crassus and Spartacus in the Samnium region. The Third Servile War, also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known as the Servile Wars. [29], The defeated consular armies fell back to Rome to regroup while Spartacus' followers moved northward. They were used for either entertainment or servitude. The end of the Servile Wars seems to have coincided with the end of the period of the most prominent use of slaves in Rome and the beginning of a new perception of slaves within Roman society and law. [25] While this factional split is not contradicted by classical sources, there does not seem to be any direct evidence to support it. They seized the town of Thurii and the surrounding countryside, arming themselves, raiding the surrounding territories, trading plunder with merchants for bronze and iron (with which to manufacture more arms), and clashing occasionally with Roman forces which were invariably defeated.[29]. Information and translations of third servile war in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. These forces were also defeated by the army of escaped slaves: Cossinius was killed, Varinius was nearly captured, and the equipment of the armies was seized by the slaves.

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